Case Study: Flying Squirrel Treatment

Another of the specimens treated as part of our preparation for our Care of Historic Mammalian Taxidermy workshop at the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections (SPNHC) 2017 annual meeting was a taxidermy giant red flying squirrel. Project Intern Logan Kursh executed the treatment.

TearRepairProcess

Conservation Intern Logan Kursh performing conservation treatment on a flying squirrel taxidermy mount. ©AMNH /F. Ritchie

There was little data available about the date or location where this specimen was collected, or about the taxidermist who prepared it. However, an examination of the specimen indicated that it was likely a nineteenth century mount, prepared using the binding method.

The specimen suffered from a number of structural and aesthetic issues. The treatment of many of these condition issues is detailed in a poster titled, “Strategies for the Conservation and Storage of Taxidermy:  Flying Squirrel Case Study” that was prepared for the SPNHC 2017 annual meeting in June 2017. Access the poster here:

SPNHC_2017_Squirrel Poster_Logan Kursh

The poster did not address the restoration of the squirrel’s snout, however, so that work is explained below.


Skin on the face and around the squirrel’s snout is thin and delicate. Like all skin in taxidermy, this hairless skin dried out and discolored after death. Taxidermists typically address this with the use of “finishing materials” such as wax and paint to add vitality. The finishing materials degrade over time, giving the specimen an unnatural appearance.

flying squirrel before treatment

Flying squirrel before treatment. Note the desiccated deformed nose. ©AMNH /L. Kursh

In the case of the squirrel, the nose appeared flat and desiccated. The skin had discolored, and there appeared to be some local fur loss. Examination of other giant red flying squirrels in our collection and reference images of squirrels in life confirmed that the specimen’s appearance was not an accurate reflection of the species in life. With the approval of the Mammalogy Department, we decided to craft a reversible overlay for the squirrel’s snout from reference images using well-understood conservation materials.

The nose and upper lips of the specimen were restored using an overlay made from Paraloid F-10 bulked with glass microballoons. Paraloid F-10 is a thermoplastic acrylic resin. It was chosen for this application because it adheres well to wax and has known ageing properties. The Paraloid F-10 mixture was spread onto a piece of silicone-release Mylar and toned slightly with dry pigment, then shaped with a microspatula based on reference images. The overlay was allowed to dry for several hours and reshaped as it slumped.

flying squirrel during treatment

Flying squirrel during treatment. The white fill material has been applied on top of the original surface and shaped to reconstruct the nose. ©AMNH /L. Kursh

To ensure complete reversibility, the overlay was attached to the specimen over a barrier layer of Paraloid B72 in acetone. Paraloid B72 is a stable thermoplastic acrylic resin and is a common art conservation adhesive in many different applications. Minor adjustments to the shape of the overlay were made, and the overlay was allowed to dry overnight. Once dry, further adjustments to the shape were made with a scalpel in consultation with expertise from the Mammalogy Department.

flying squirrel during treatment

Flying squirrel during treatment. The nose has been reconstructed and the white fill material toned brown with paint. The next step is to add hairs to integrate the fill with surrounding areas. ©AMNH /L. Kursh

flying squirrel during treatment

Flying squirrel during the final treatment step – the addition of hair on the toned fill of the nose. ©AMNH /L. Kursh

The overlay was toned with acrylic paint based on available references. Rabbit fur was flocked onto the overlay with Lascaux 498HV. Lascaux 498HV is a thermoplastic acrylic resin that dries flexible and is reversible with heat.

After treatment the squirrel’s nose appears more life-like and integrates with surrounding features.

flying squirrel after treatment

Flying squirrel after treatment. Note the reconstructed nose. ©AMNH /L. Kursh

For details about other aspects of the treatment of this specimen, be sure to check out the SPNHC poster. SPNHC_2017_Squirrel Poster_Logan Kursh

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